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第五大道的”异军突起”—— 索罗门•古根海姆博物馆

2016/05/06 09:55:21 4473 400-999-3700

第五大道的异军突起”—— 索罗门·古根海姆博物馆

文:Anita Xu


《北京人在纽约》有一句话说得巧妙而隐晦:如果你爱他,就把他送到纽约。因为那里是天堂。如果你恨他,就把他送到纽约,因为那里是地狱。基于艺术从业者的角度来看,纽约毋庸置疑,是一片天堂,是一汪海洋,美好得令人垂涎欲滴但又或因它的混杂善变、深不见底而逡巡着不敢前进。就在你犹豫着该如何迈出探索纽约的第一步时,在你还被lonely planet上砸来的一个个景点介绍敲得头晕眼花时,遍布城市大大小小的博物馆不会是错误的选择。

There is a saying that goes,” Send him to New York if you love him, for it’s heaven; Send him to New York if you hate him, for it’s hell.” From the perspective of practitioners of art and design, New York is everything, especially a paradise of inspiration. However, as you feel cautious and baffled to step forward, museum visiting is undoubtedly your best bet.

The Guggenheim Museum and Wright

纽约绝不是缺少名头响亮的博物馆的地界儿,世界上都难找出第二座可以与它媲美的城市。大都会艺术博物馆(Metropolitan Museum of Art),自然历史博物馆(American Museum of Natural History),现代艺术博物馆(The Museum of Modern Art),惠特尼美术馆(Whitney Museum of American Art)等等不胜枚举。就在你还执着地埋首于Lonely Planet左右选择之时,笔者推荐不妨先选择去邂逅了那个矗立在街角,好似一位安静的美男子,却又有着鹤立鸡群一般,极具遗世独立之感的建筑——索罗门·R·古根海姆博物馆。




The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, often referred to as The Guggenheim, is an art museum located at 1071 Fifth Avenue on the corner of East 89th Street in the Upper East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. It is the permanent home of a renowned and continuously expanding collection of Impressionism, Post-impressionism, early Modern and contemporary art and also features special exhibitions throughout the year. The museum's collection has grown organically, over eight decades, and is founded upon several important private collections, beginning with Solomon R. Guggenheim's original collection. The collection is shared with the museum's sister museums in Bilbao, Venice, Berlin, and Las Vegas.

追溯至赖特所处的19世纪末20世纪初,美国资本主义工业生产急速发展,雄心勃勃。城市化加剧,人口密度猛增,过多不合理的街道被开辟出来,高楼平地而起。而赖特对于摩天大厦的建造一直都不感兴趣甚至是嗤之以鼻。他幼年的成长环境注定了他对于城市过度集中的反感。翻看赖特的履历,他的作品多是民用住宅、平矮但却舒展的别墅建筑。“大草原”(Prairie Houses和“美国风”(Usonian Houses)以及“有机建筑”(Organic Architecture)的诞生,更是深刻阐述了赖特在建筑设计中对于“自然”和“自由”的追求。


Frank Lloyd Wright was born on June 8, 1867, in Richland Center, Wisconsin. After college, he became chief assistant to architect Louis Sullivan. Wright then founded his own firm and developed a style known as the Prairie school, which strove for an "organic architecture" in designs for homes and commercial buildings. Over his career he created numerous iconic buildings.

Wright made no secret of his disenchantment with Guggenheim's choice of New York for his museum: "I can think of several more desirable places in the world to build his great museum," Wright wrote in 1949 to Arthur Holden, "but we will have to try New York." To Wright, the city was overbuilt, overpopulated, and lacked architectural merit. Still, he proceeded with his client's wishes, considering locations on 36th Street, 54th Street, and Park Avenue (all in Manhattan), as well as in the Riverdale section of the Bronx, before settling on the present site on Fifth Avenue between 88th and 89th Streets. Its proximity to Central Park was key; as close to nature as one gets in New York, the park afforded relief from the noise and congestion of the city.

Interior Design


在我看来,赖特深深地理解到身处于纽约这个城市中的人,对于自由的渴望。相比于生活在赖特故乡威斯康星的人们,居住在纽约的“城里人”好像被困在了这里。人们在纽约,以为自己看到了整个世界,但转身面对的仍然是四面方方正正的墙,和一张可能会有bed bug的床。赖特在古根海姆这座美术馆里,给了人们跳出去的希望。走进博物馆的底层,你可以沿着蜿蜒的展厅走廊向上盘旋行进。所有的展品都沿廊而置,你完全不必担心错过了什么大师的作品,只需要跟随着螺旋结构的廊道缓缓上升和旋转。在你也不清楚到底转了几圈的旅程结束时,你还以为展览就此谢幕,不巧这时,你抬头发现,玻璃穹顶连接至天际,镶嵌着漫无尽头的宇宙。这兴许正是赖特想要留给参观者们的最后一幅作品。这副作品依旧表达着他对于自由,对于远方,对于广袤原野的向往和追求,即便这是在纽约。


Nature not only provided the museum with a respite from New York's distractions but also leant it inspiration. The Guggenheim Museum is an embodiment of Wright's attempts to render the inherent plasticity of organic forms in architecture. His inverted ziggurat (a stepped or winding pyramidal temple of Babylonian origin) dispensed with the conventional approach to museum design, which led visitors through a series of interconnected rooms and forced them to retrace their steps when exiting. Instead, Wright whisked people to the top of the building via elevator, and led them downward at a leisurely pace on the gentle slope of a continuous ramp. The galleries were divided like the membranes in citrus fruit, with self-contained yet interdependent sections. The open rotunda afforded viewers the unique possibility of seeing several bays of work on different levels simultaneously. The spiral design recalled a nautilus shell, with continuous spaces flowing freely one into another.

A Temple of Spirit

1943年,赖特接到了古根海姆博物馆的所有者矿业大亨索罗门·R·古根海姆以及他的顾问希拉·贝蕾的盛情邀请,为古根海姆博物馆设计新馆。它的旧址,位于54街的非物体绘画博物馆non-objective art)已经负荷不了古根海姆愈来愈丰富,尤其是对于抽象派作品的收藏了。古根海姆将新馆的设计理念定义为一个精神的圣殿A Temple of Spirit),而不简简单单地是储藏和展览艺术品的盒子。在他的眼里,赖特是唯一一位能够让这个理念付诸于实际的建筑师人选。最终,博物馆的建筑设计所达到的高度,甚至超越了馆内藏品。而这也成为那些躁动不安的批评家们对这个博物馆诟病的原因之一。


尽管赖特对于纽约的选址有着诸多的不满,他终拗不过客户的旨意,并通过与之相邻的中央公园,找到了这栋建筑通向自然的一把钥匙。历经了700多张草图和6套工作图纸,古根海姆博物馆在1956年等来了破土动工。遗憾的是,3年后的 195910月,当人们在第五大道排列起队伍等待进入这座充满超前意识的,与周遭一切都格格不入的建筑物内时,赖特已辞世多月,没能看到自己呕心沥血培养出来的孩子成人仪式的这一刻。

When Solomon Guggenheim, the heir to a mining fortune, and his art adviser, Hilla Rebay, decided to construct a museum for abstract painting (which they called "non-objective art"), Wright was a natural choice as architect. In Rebay's words, the two were seeking "a temple of spirit, a monument" and Wright, through his long career, was a builder of temples and monuments.

The project evolved into a complex struggle pitting the architect against his clients, city officials, the art world, and public opinion. Both Guggenheim and Wright died before the building's 1959 completion. The resultant achievement, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, testifies not only to Wright's architectural genius, but to the adventurous spirit that characterized its founders.



古根海姆博物馆的外观曾被那个相对古板的年代所排斥,古根海姆博物馆连锁式的运营方式更是被讥讽为艺术博物馆界的麦当劳。然而半个多世纪后的今天,事实给了那些讥笑者一记耳光。纽约的古根海姆成为了地标性建筑(landmark building),周末慕名前来驻足博物馆门前的长龙足矣证明。古根海姆博物馆也依旧在全球不断地摸索着下一个扎根落脚的营地。这岂是流言蜚语所能阻挡。



Key words

1)      Metropolitan Museum of Art 大都会艺术博物馆。美国最大的艺术博物馆。

2)      American Museum of Natural History 美国自然历史博物馆。《博物馆奇妙夜》的拍摄地。在第五大道与大都会艺术博物馆遥遥相望。

3)      The Museum of Modern Art 简称MOMA现代艺术博物馆

4)      Prairie Houses “大草原”住宅。由赖特提出并创造。强调建筑与周围自然环境的融合。这类住宅大多位于郊外的草原上。

5)      Usonian Houses “美国风”建筑。赖特在上世纪30年代美国遭遇经济大萧条时期,所提出的住宅风格。该风格的建筑只使用砖头,木头,水泥,玻璃和纸这5种材料。强调建筑的简洁,经济实用并同样与自然环境相结合。

6)      Organic Architecture “有机”建筑,是现代建筑的一个派别。代表人物为赖特。

7)      iconic building 标志性建筑物。类似于landmark building(地标建筑)。在雅思口语part 1中,介绍家乡或你熟悉的一个城市,总少不了提几个当地的iconic building

8)      overbuilt   v. overbuild的过去分词形式。overbuild,过多地建造

9)      overpopulated   v.&adj. overpopulate的过去分词。使人口过密;人口过多的。


10)   architectural merit 建筑的价值。在赖特看来,纽约是一个缺少建筑价值的城市。

11)   interconnected room 相互连通的房间。指的是传统博物馆内被分割成一个个小房间的展厅。

12)   slope (ramp)   n. 在文中都是斜坡、坡道的意思。

13)   rotunda   n. 圆形大厅

14)   self-contained   adj. 独立的,自给自足的

15)   interdependent sections 相互依赖的区域

16)   nautilus shell 鹦鹉螺贝壳

17)   abstract painting 抽象画

18)   non-objective art “非物体绘画”。古根海姆博物馆的前身“非物体绘画”博物馆。被称作“非物体绘画”,实则类似于抽象绘画。

19)   monument 纪念碑,丰碑


1)      renowned   adj.著名的。是在写作或口语中替换famous的好东西。

2)      organically   adv.

3)      strove for   v.strive for的过去式。为而奋斗

Prairie houses strove for an "organic architecture" in designs for homes and commercial buildings.

4)      made no secret   make no secret的过去式。对毫不掩饰。make no secret of sth

5)      disenchantment   n.醒悟;觉醒;不报有幻想

这个词怎么来记? dis – enchant –ment   中间的enchant是不是见过?

6)      afforded relief from…  relief:减轻;救济;安慰

这个短句类似于经常使用的relieve sb from sth

The park afforded relief from the noise and congestion of the city.

7)      bedbug   n.床虱  隐藏在床垫里的小可爱……在纽约曾有一阵子以风卷残云之势袭来。

8)      respite   n.缓解,暂时的休息

9)      embodiment   n.体现;使具体化

10)   plasticity   n.可塑性;适应性

plastic 塑料的,这个词熟悉得不能再熟悉了吧?现在就是在它后面加上-ity,变成名词,指可塑造性,柔软性。

11)   dispensed   v.&adj.分发,执行,处置;分发得,分配的

12)   mining   n.矿业,采矿


1.         http://www.biography.com/people/frank-lloyd-wright-9537511#synopsis

2.         http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-triumph-of-frank-lloyd-wright-132535844/?no-ist=&fb_locale=de_DE&page=1

3.         http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/about/frank-lloyd-wright-building

4.         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_R._Guggenheim_Museum